Smithsonian Institution Libraries

THE BIRDS

or

NORTH AMERICA

THE DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES BASED CHIEFLY ON THE COLLECTIONS

IN THE

MUSEUM OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.

BY

SPENCER F. B A I R D;

ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION,

WITH THE CO-OPERATION OF

JOHN CAS SIN,

OF THE ACADEMY OK NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, AND

GEORGE N. LAWRENCE,

OF THE LYCEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY OF NEW YORK

mill} an $tlu of One pnouij 'plates.

TEXT.

PHILADELPHIA:

J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO.

1 8 G 0.

1

CONTENTS.

Page.,

Advertisement.. i

Preface in

Explanation of the plates vn

Systematic list of illustrations xin

Systematic list of the higher groups xvn

List of species xxv

Introductory remarks - 1

Order Eaptores 3

Order Scansores C5

Order Insessores 12G

Order Rasores 593

Order Grallatores 650

Order Natatores 754

Appendix A. Additional remarks on North American hirds 921

Appendix B. Birds found at Fort Bridgcr, Utah 926

Appendix C. List of authorities 928

Index of common names 955

Index of scientific names 963

ADVERTISEMENT.

The present work is, in part, a reprint of the General Report on North American Birds presented to the Department of War, and published in October, 1858, as one of the series of "Reports of Explorations and Surveys of a Railroad Route to the Pacific Ocean." In this volume, however, will be found many important additions and corrections, including detailed lists of plates, both numerical and systematic, descriptions of newly-discovered species, &c, not in the original edition.

The Atlas contains one hundred plates, representing one hundred and forty-eight new or unfigured species of North American birds. Of these plates about fifty appear for the first time, having been prepared expressly for this work. The remainder form the ornitho- logical illustrations of the Reports of the Pacific Railroad Survey, and of the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey under Major Emory, and are distributed throughout the numerous volumes composing those series. All have, however, been carefully retouched and lettered for this edition, and quite a number redrawn entirely from better and more characteristic specimens. In fact, the plates of the Atlas have been prepared expressly for the present edition with the utmost care and attention.

In the volume of text will be found a complete account of the birds of North America, brought down to the present time, including accurate descriptions of all known species : their arrangement in the genera and families recognized by modern zoologists ; their geographical distribution ; and, as far as possible, all other information necessary to a complete summary or manual of North American ornithology. No other work extant gives a complete ornithology of our country; and it has been the especial object of the authors and publishers to adapt it to the wants of the student and lover of nature, and to present in a condensed form, and at a price within the reach of all, a reliable text-book in this favorite department of natural history. Extended bibliographical notices, embracing full references to very nearly all authors on American ornithology, have been added, and will be found to be of high interest to the student and naturalist.

The Atlas, embracing as it does one hundred plates of birds not figured by Audubon, will be found indispensable to the possessor of that distinguished author's "Birds of America," completing it to the present time.

As stated in the preface, the descriptions and figures in the present work have been taken almost entirely from specimens in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution. To the Secretary of the Institution the publishers are under many obligations for facilities in the preparation of this much-extended and greatly-improved edition.

PREFACE.

The present report is a continuation of a systematic account of the vertebrate animals of North America, collected or observed by the different parties organized under the direction of the War Department for ascertaining the best route for a railroad from the Mississippi river to the Pacific ocean.

The collections of these expeditions having been deposited with the Smithsonian Institution by the War Department, in compliance with an act of Congress, the undersigned was charged by the Secretary of the Institution with the duty of furnishing the series of general reports upon them, as called for by the Department. The account of the mammals having been published in 1857, that of the birds is herewith furnished, prepared according to the plan announced in the preface to that volume.

As in the volume on the mammals, by the insertion of the comparatively few species not noticed by the expeditions, this report becomes an exposition of the present state of our knowl- edge of the birds of North America north of Mexico. This addition, while rendering the work more valuable to the reader, was absolutely necessary for the proper understanding of the western fauna, the species of which are generally so closely allied to the eastern forms as to require in most cases more minute and detailed descriptions of the latter than have been pub- lished.

Certain portions of the report have been prepared by Mr. John Cassin, of Philadelphia, and Mr. George N. Lawrence, of New York, well known as the leading ornithologists of the United States. Mr. Cassin has furnished the entire account of the Baptores from p. 4 to 64, of the Grallae from p. 689 to 753, and of the Alcidae from p. 900 to 918, in all about 135 pages. Mr. Lawrence has written the article on the Longipennes, Totipalmes, and Colynibidae, from page 820 to 900, making 80 pages.

To Mr. P. L. Sclater, of London, acknowledgments are due for the examination of certain specimens in European museums, and for other valuable aid in determining points of synonymy ; some of his notes, received too late for insertion in their proper places, will be found in Appendix A. Much assistance has also been rendered in various ways by Dr. J. G. Cooper.

In the introduction to the general report upon the mammals will be found a detailed account of the different railroad surveying parties from which zoological collections were received, with their respective routes. For the proper understanding of the subject, however, it will be necessary to present a brief recapitulation in this place.

1. Line of the 47th parallel, under Governor I. I. Stevens. This consisted of two prin- cipal parties: one under Governor Stevens, passing from St. Paul, Minnesota, to the Pacific, accompanied by Dr. George Suckley, U. S. A., as surgeon and naturalist; the other under Captain G. B, McClellan, proceeding from Vancouver to the Cascade mountains, accompanied

IV

PREFACE.

by Dr. J. G. Cooper. After the termination of their official duties with the survey, Dr. Suck- ley made a very extensive collection of birds at the Dalles, and on Puget's Sound, and Dr. Cooper at Shoal water bay, on Puget's Sound, and at Santa Clara, California.

2. 38th and 39th parallels, under Captain J. W. Gunnison, and the 41st, under Captain E. G. Beckwith. The duties of naturalist were performed by Mr. Kreuzfeldt until his death; afterwards by Mr. Snyder, of Captain Beckwith' s party.

3. 35th parallel, under Captain A. W. Whipple. This party was at first divided into two : one under Captain Whipple, starting at Port Smith, accompanied by Mr. H. B. Molhausen, as naturalist; the other under Lieutenant Ives, from San Antonio, Texas, with Dr. Kennerly. Both parties met at Albuquerque, and proceeded together to the Pacific.

4. California line, under Lieutenant Williamson. This party, with Dr. Heermann as naturalist, explored the country from San Francisco to the Tejon Pass and the Colorado river.

5. 32d parallel west, under Lieutenant J. G. Parke. Lieutenant Parke's party, with Dr. Heermann as naturalist, traversed the route from Port Yuma to El Paso, and thence through Texas.

6. 32d parallel east, under Captain J. Pope. Prom El Paso to Preston, on Red river. Captain Pope's collections include the very extensive series of birds gathered by Dr. T. C. Henry, U. S. A., at Port Thorn and on the Mimbres.

The preceding lines were organized in 1853 ; the following was sent out subsequently:

7. California and Oregon line, under Lieutenant Williamson. This party explored the Cascade mountains of California and Oregon. The zoological collections were made by Dr. J. S. Newberry, geologist of the expedition.

In addition to the preceding railroad explorations, the results of the following miscellaneous government expeditions, made under the War Department, have been embodied in the report:

8. Exploration of the Llano Estacado, in 1854 and 1856, by Captain Pope.

9. Exploration of the Upper Missouri and Yellowstone in 1856, under Lieut. G. K. War- ren.— Very large collections of birds were made by this party, of which Dr. P. V. Hayden was surgeon and naturalist.

10. Exploration of the north side of the Platte river and Loup Fork in 1857, under Lieut. G. K. Warren. On this second expedition of Lieut. Warren, (Dr. Hayden, naturalist,) large collections of birds were made, especially on Laramie Peak and Loup Fork.

11. Wagon road from Fort Riley to Bridger's Pass, under Lieut. F. T. Bryan. -This party, with W. S. Wood as collector and naturalist, was in the field two seasons, 1856 and 1857, and made very large collections.

12. Survey of the Colorado river in 1857- 58, under Lieut. J. C. Ives. H. B. Molhausen, zoologist, aided by Dr. J. S. Newberry, geologist.

The following expeditions, under the Department of the Interior, have also furnished important materials :

13. Survey of the United States and Mexican Boundary line in 1851 to 1855. The col- lections of this survey were made while Mr. John R. Bartlett, Mr. R. B. Campbell, and Major W. H. Emory, U. S. A., were commissioners; and Col. J. D. Graham, U. S. A., and Major Emory, U.S.A., were in charge of the scientific department. The collections were made by Messrs. John H. Clark, Arthur Schott, Charles Wright, Dr. T. H. Webb, and Dr. C. B. Kennerly.

PREFACE.

V

14. Fort Kearney, South Pass and Honey Lake Wagon Road, Eastern Division, under W. M. F. Magraw. On this route large collections were make by Dr. J. G. Cooper, surgeon of the party, as far as Fort Laramie, in 1857, and on his return eastward. His assistant, Mr. C. Drexler, visited Fort Bridger, Utah, in March, 1858, and mainly through the countenance of General A. S. Johnston, commander of the United States forces stationed there, was enabled to make a very large collection of the birds of that region. His collections were received too late for mention in their proper places, but ai*e given in Appendix B.

Parties fitted out by the State Department:

15. Survey op the Northwestern Boundary, under Archibald Campbell. Occasional refer- ences will be found to collections received from this party, of which Dr. C. B. Kennerly is surgeon and naturalist, made chiefly at Simeahmoo bay, Puget's Sound, near the mouth of Fraser's river.

The following less official collections from the west and south have been used in the prepara- tion of the report :

From the Pacific slope. The very large private collections of Dr. Suckley, in Washington and Oregon Territories, and of Dr. Cooper, in Washington Territory and California, already referred to.

Also, additional collections of great magnitude made along the whole Pacific coast of the United States by Lieut. W. P. Trowbridge, while engaged on Coast Survey duty; by Mr. E. Samuels, at Petaluma, California, and by Mr. John Xantus de Vesey, at Fort Tejon.

Likewise collections of greater or less extent made by Dr. John Potts, U. S. A., Mr. A. J. Grayson, Dr. John F. Hammond, U. S. A., Richard D. Cutts, Mr. A. Cassidy, Dr. W. F. Tolmie, Dr. Vollum, U. S. A., and Dr. W. S. King, U. S. A.

From the Rocky mountain regions. The very complete collection of birds of Fort Thoni and the adjacent regions, made by Dr. T. C. Henry, U. S. A. ; also, collection from Fort Massachusetts, New Mexico, made by Dr. D. W. C. Peters, U. S. A. ; at Cantonment Burgwyn, New Mexico, by Dr. W. W. Anderson, U. S. A. ; and by Captain R. B. Marcy, near Cochetope Pass.

From Texas and Mexico. The large collection of Lieut. D. N. Couch, U. S. A., in Texas and northern Mexico; of Captain S. Van Vliet, U. S. A., at Brownsville; of Dr. Swift, U.S.A., at Fort Chadb'ourne, Texas, and of Drs. Foard and Crawford, U. S. A. ; also, of Mr. Gustavus Wurdemann, of the United States Coast Survey, on the coast of Texas. The further collections of this gentleman on the coast of Louisiana, of Florida, and among the Florida Keys, have contained several new species, and many species new to the fauna of the United States.

From Nebraska, Kansas, and elsewhere. Collections made in Kansas and Nebraska by Dr. W. A. Hammond, U. S. A., and Mr. John Xantus de Vesey; by Dr. Hayden, Colonel Alfred Vaughan, Indian agent, and Dr. J. Evans. On Red River of the North by Donald Gunn, esq. Also large collections made in Minnesota and Illinois by Mr. R. Kennicott, partly under the auspices of the Northwestern University of Evanston, Illinois; others made in Wisconsin by Dr. Hoy and Mr. Barry; in Ohio by Dr. J. P. Kirtland; and near Chicago by Mr. Thomas E. Blackney. Also collections made in Georgia by Professor Joseph Leconte.

A collection of about 150 species received from Mr. John Gould, of London, contains many rare birds from the northwest and Arctic regions, (some of them types of the "Fauna Boreali- Americana,") as well as others from Mexico and Guatemala. The latter have proved of great service for comparison with closely allied species of the United States, as have also specimens

VI

PREFACE.

from Mr. P. L. Sclater, of London, Mr. J. P. Verreaux, of Paris, and Messrs. J. H. Gurney and Alfred Newton, of Norwich, England.

The types of eastern birds have been furnished by the collection of the author deposited in the Smithsonian Institution. This consists of a full collection of birds of Central Pennsylvania, with sex, date, and measurements before skinning. It also embraces a large number of Mr. Audubon's typical specimens used in the preparation of his "Birds of America," including many of those from the Columbia river and Rocky mountains, furnished him by Mr. J. K. Townsend.

In addition to the collections just mentioned, with others not enumerated, all in charge of the Smithsonian Institution, and amounting to over 12,000 specimens, types have been supplied for the occasion by Mr. Cassin, Mr. Lawrence, Mr. John G-. Bell, Dr. Michener, and others. The ornithological gallery of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, believed to be the richest in the world, has also furnished the means of making many essential comparisons.

The measurements of the specimens have usually been made in hundredths of the English inch,1 mostly with the dividers. All the measurements in the list of specimens are as made before the bird was skinned, each collector being responsible for the accuracy of his work. The comparative tables of measurements show, in many cases, the change of dimensions produced in the dried skin.

S. F. B.

Washington, October 20, 1858.

i-The English inch is about equal to 11.26 French lines, .9383 French inches, or to 25.40 millimetres.

EXPLANATION OF PLATES.*

Page.

Plate 1. Falco fcmoralk, Temm. Aplornado. Dr. Heerraaun's specimen from New Mexico 11

2. Buieo cleyaiis, Cassin. Red-bellied Hawk. Adult. Dr. Heermann's specimen from California 28

3. Bitlto degans, Cassin. Young. No. 8524. New Mexico - 28

4. Fig. 1. Passerculus almdinu.%, Box. Lark Sparrow 44G

Fig. 2. Peucam cmsinii, Baird Cassin's Finch Dr. Woodhouse's type specimen 485

5. Myiarchm meticanus, Baird.— Ash-throated Flycatcher - 179

G. Tryiigiks rvfescens, Cabanis. Buff-breasted Sandpiper. San Antonio, Texas. (Type of Dr. Heer- mann's species Actidurvs naevim) - - - 739

7. Strepsilm melanocephala, Vigors. Black-headed Turnstone. California . 702

8. Podkeps ajlifornicus, Heermann. California Grebe. California. From Dr. Heermann's type spe-

cimen. (Closely related to, if not the young of Podkeps auriiui, L.) 890

9. PothjUmbus podke-ps, Lawr. Carolina Grebe. Young. California. From the type of Podylimfms line-

aim, Heermanti 898

10. Graculua penkillatux, Bonap. Brandt's Cormorant Farallone Islands. Dr. Heermann 880

11. Falco niyrkeps, Cassin. Black-Capped Hawk. Shoalwatcr Bay 8

12. Buteo swainsoni, Bonap. Swainson's Buzzard. Specimens from Captain Beckwith's collection.

Utah 19

13. Buieo sivainsoni, Bonap. More adult plumage than the preceding. Captain Beckwith. Utah 19

14. BuUo calurus, Cassin. Black Ked-tail Hawk. 8527. Coppermines of New Mexico. (Now in

museum of Philadelphia Academy.) 2G

15. Fig. 1. Balm fuliyinosus, Sclater. Dusky Hawk. New Mexico. Dr. Henry. Museum Philadelphia

Academy. (Species described in Pr. Zool. Soc, London, 1858, 356'.).,

Fig. 2. Buteo oxypterus, Cassin. Sharp-winged Hawk. Same locality and collector as the preceding. Mu- seum Philadelphia Academy. N. B. These two figures probably represent adult and young of the same species, the latter name

having priority 30

10. Buteo cooperi, Cassin. Cooper's Hawk. No. 8525. Santa Clara county, California 31

17. Chordeiles henryi, Cassin. Western Night Hawk.— GG98. Female. Upper Rio Grande. (The bird

is represented of too large size by the figure) 153

18. Fig. 1. Panyptila melanoleuca, Baird.— White-throated Swift. No. 6017. Bill Williams's Fork 141

Fig. 2. Cfuzetura vauxii, Dekay. Oregon Swift. Type specimen in Museum Philadelphia Academy 145

19. Atthis costae, Reich.— Ruffed Humming Bird.— Male and female, Nos. G073, G074. Bill Williams's

Fork, New Mexico. - _ 138

20. Corvus caealotl, Wagler. Colorado Raven. G855. Colorado Desert 5G3

21. Corvus camivorus, Bartrah. American Raven. 5G0

ft Where not otherwise mentioned, the specimens figured are to be considered as in the museum of the Smithsonian Institu- tion, and the numbers refer to the Smithsonian record of birds. The original of each figure is indicated as far as can now be ascertained.

VIII

EXPLANATION OF PLATES.

Page.

Plate 22. Corvus cryptoleucus, Couch. White-necked Crow. No. 4118. Charco Escondido. Type specimen- 505

23. Corvus americanus, Aud. Common American Crow. Eastern United States 566

24. Corvus caurinus, Baird Western Fish Crow. Washington Territory 569

25. Pica hudsonica, Bon. American Magpie. Rocky Mountains .. 576

26. Pica nutlalli, Aud. Yellow-billed Magpie. California... 57S

27. Fig. 1. Carpodacus cassinii, Baihd. Cassin's Purple Finch. Type specimen from New Mexico 414

Fig 2. Melospizafallax, Baird. Mountain Song Sparrow. Type from Pueblo Creek, New Mexico - 481

28. Fig. 1. Junco dorsalis, Henry.— Eed-backed Snowbird.— 9270 —Fort Thorn, N. M. Type 467

Fig. 2. rasserculus sandwichensis, Baird. Nootka Sparrow. 10263. Male. Russian America 444

29. Pipilo mesoleucus, Baird. Canon Finch. New Mexico 518

30. Pipilo abertii, Baird. Abert's Towhec. New Mexico 517

31. Pyranga hepalica, Swalne. Mountain Tanager. Fort Thorn, N. M. Museum Phila. Academy.. 302

32. Quiscalus baritus, Vieill. Florida Blackbird. 10336. Male. Indian Key, Fla 556

33. Fig. 1. Potioptiln plumbea, Baird. Western Gnat Catcher. 7181. Colorado river. (The figure beneath

it represents the coloration of the tail) 382

Fig. 2. PsaUnparus plumbeus, Baird. Lead-colored Tit. 0777. Colorado river. Type 398

Fig. 3. Silta aeukata, Cassin.— Slender-billed Nuthatch. Profile of head —10209. Fort Tejon 375

Fig. 4. Sitta carolinensis, Gmelin. White-bellied Nuthatch. Profile of head. Pennsylvania 374

34. Fig. 1. Sphyropicus williatnsonii, Baird. Williamson's Woodpecker. North California 105

Fig. 2. Icleria longicauda, Lawrence. Long-tailed Chat. From the type belonging to Mr. G. N. Lawrence.

(No. 8602.) California 249

35. Fig. 1. Sphyropicus nuchalis, Baird.— Red-throated Woodpecker.— Male.— 10769. Fort Bridger 103.921

Fig. 2. Sphyropicus nuchalis, Baird. Head of female. 10783. Fort Bridger 103

36. Centurm uropyyialis, Baird. Gila Woodpecker. Bill Williams's Fork. Type. Two figures of the

male bird. The female lacks the red of the crown Ill

37. Grusfraterculus, Cassin. —Little Crane.— 10378. Albuquerque, N. M. Type 650

38. Podiceps occidentalis, Lawrence. Western Grebe. Washington Territory 894

39. (I.)* Sco/w me'ealU, Cassin. Western Mottled Owl. Texas 50

40. (II.) Fig. 1. Trogon mexicanus, Sw Mexican Trogon. 4338. New Leon. Fig. 2. Under view of tail of a

different specimen 65

41. (III.) Fig. 1. Picus scalaris, Wagler Texas Sap-sucker Male. Texas 94

Fig. 2. Picus nuitallii, Gambel Nuttal's Woodpecker. Male 93

By an error in the plate the whitish nasal bristles of P. nutlallii are not shown in contradis- tinction to the smoky brown ones of P. scalaris.

42. (IV.) Centurut ft wiventris, Sw. Yellow-bellied Woodpecker. Fig. 1, male. Fig. 2, female. Texas 110

43. (V.) Figs. 1 and 2. Selasphorus pljtycercus, Gould Broad-tailed Humming-bird 135

Fig. 3. Trochilus alexandr, Bouro Black-chinned Humming-bird. Male. In Dr. Heermann's collection. 133

44. (VI.) Chordeiles texensis, Lawrence. Texas Night Hawk. Texas 154

45. (VII.) Ceryle americana, Boie Texas Kingfisher. Fig. 1 : Adult ; fig. 2 : Young Texas 159

46. (VIII.) Momotus caeruliceps, Gould Saw-bill. From a Mexican specimen in the Museum of the Phila-

delphia Academy 101

47. (IX.) Fig. 1. Pachyrhamphus aglaiae, Lafr. Rose-throated Flycatcher. Male. 4025 New Leon. (Pla-

typsaris affinis of Elliot) _ 164

Fig. 2. Bathimidurus major, Cabanis. Thick-bill.— Female. 4026. New Leon 166

Fig. 3. My iarchus lawrencii, Baird Lawrence's Flycatcher. Female. 10028. New Leon.. 181

" The figures in parenthesis refer to the numbers of the plates in the Mexican Boundary series.

EXPLANATION OF PLATES.

IX

Page.

Plate 48. (X.) Tijrannus vociferans, Sw. Cassin's Flycatcher. New Mexico 174

49. (XI ) Fig. 1. Tyrannus couchii, Baird. Couch's Flycatcher. New Leon. Type... 175

Fig. 2 Tyrannus melancholicus, Vibill. Silent Flycatcher. Tail. (A south Mexican species introduced

to show the difference in emargination of tail from T. couchii) . 176

Fig. 3. Empidonax obscurus, Baird. Wright's Flycatcher.— 7234. El Paso 200

50. (XII.) Ilarporhynchus lecontii, Bjnap, Leconte's Thrush. Fort Yuma. From the type in collection of Geo.

N. Lawrence - . 350

51. (XIII.) llarporhynchus curvirostris, Cab. Curve-billed Thrush. 7200. Ringgold Barracks, Texas . 351

52. (XIV.) llarporhynchus longirostris, Cab. Texas Thrasher. Mexico 352

53. (XV.) Fig. 1. Lophophani's u\>ll weberi, Bonap. Wollweher's Titmouse. Fort Thorn. Museum Philadelphia

Academy 386

Fig. 2. Paroides flaviceps, Baird Verdin.— Texas. 400

Fig. 3. Psaltriparus mdanotus, Bonap.— Black-cheeked Tit. Guatemala. Museum Philadelphia Academy. 396

54. (XVI.) Fig. 1. Chrysomitris mexicanus, Bonap. Mexican Goldfinch 424

Fig. 2. Spermophila moreletii, Puciieran. Little Seed-eater. Male. From specimen belonging to P. L.

Selater. Fig. 3. Sp'runphili nu'-t'ldii. Female. Lt Couch's collection ..... ... 506

55. (XVII.) Fig. 1. Spizella atrigularis, Baird. Black-chinned Sparrow. 4335. Coahuila 476

Fig. 2. Embernagra rufivirgata, Lawr. Texas Finch. Texas .- - 373

56. (XVIII.) Fig. 1. Cyanospiza partllina, Baird. Blue Bunting.— 4076. New Leon 502

Fig. 2. Cyanospiza versicolor, Baird. Varied Bunting. 4075. New Leon . .... 503

57. (XIX.) Fig. 1. Icterus parisorum, Bonap. Scott's Oriole. 4056. Male. New Leon. Type of Icterus scoltii,

Couch - 544

Fig. 2. Icterus wagleri, Sclater. Wagler's Oriole. Male. 4058. Coahuila 545

58. (XX.) Quiscalus macroura, Sw.— Long-tailed Grakle.— Texas 553

59. (XXI.) Cyanocitta woodhousii, Baird. Woodhouse's Jay. 9345. San Francisco Mountains, New Mexico... 585

60. (XXII ) Fig. 1. Cyanocitta sordida, Baird. Mountain Jay. 9095. Mexico 587

Fig. 2. Cyanocitta ultramarina, Strickl. Ultramarine Jay. Bill and tail, to show the difference from the

preceding species. 4113. Male. Monterey, Mexico - 588

01. (XXIII.) Columbajlaviroslris, Wagl.— Red-billed Dove.— 4111. New Leon 598

02. (XXIV.) Ortyx texanus, Lawr. Texan Quail. Male and female. Dr. Heermann's collection 472

03. (XXV.) Fig. 1. Dendrocygnafulva^jvtat: Brown Tree Duck. 10399. Male. Fort Tejon 770

Fig. 2. Dendrocygna aulumnalis, 'Eytox.— Long-legged Duck.— 9871. Texas 770

64. Asturina nitida, Bonap. Mexican Hawk. Fig. 1 : Adult. Collection of Phila. Academy. Fig. 2:

4128. Young female. San Diego, Mex 35

05. Rostrhamus sociabilis, D'Orb. Black Kite. Fig. 1 : Adult. Museum Phila. Academy. Fig. 2 :

Young. Specimen from Florida in Museum Phila. Academy .... 38

66. Syrnium occidenlale, Xantus. Tejon|Owl Type °

67. Fig. 1. Corvus floridanus, Baird.— Florida Crow.— 10374. Male. South Florida. Type 568

Fig. 2. Corvus ossifragus, Wilson. Fish Crow. 4515. Male. Washington, D. C 571

* Syrnium occidentale, Xantus. Proceedings Phila. Acad. Nat. Sciences, 1859, 193. Sp. Char. A little smaller than S. nebulosum ; general color liver brown, the feathers barred everywhere, even on the flanks Axillars and under wing and tail coverts banded transversely with white, the bands towards and on the head are contracted into rounded spots.

General appearance that of S. nebulosum. Prevailing color light liver brown, each short feather with two transverse bars of white, the basal one tinged with rufous yellow ; the subterminal pure white and not generally extending to the edges of the feathers. These bars have a marginal suffusion of brown darker than the ground color. On the top of the head and neck the subterminal bar exhibits a tendency to contraction into rounded or cordate spots, and in other places to a median

X

EXPLANATION OF PLATES.

Page.

Plate 68. PsUorhinus mono, Gray. Brown Jay.— From specimens in Museum of Phila. Academy. Not those

described in the text. Fig. 2 : Head of the yellow-billed variety..... 592

69. Fig. 1. Zimotrichia gambdu, Gambel. Gambel's Finch.— C205. Male. Sacramento 460

Fig. 2. Zotwtrkhia leucophrys, Sw. White-crowned Sparrow. Figure of head to show the difference in the

supra-ocular white stripe from that of the preceding species. 1506. Male. Carlisle, Pa 458

Fig. 3. Passerella schistxm, Baird. Slate-colored Sparrow. 11231. Male. Fort Bridger. (Upper

mandible too stout.) _ 400,925

Fig. 4. rasserelkt schistacea, var. megarhynchus. The thick-billed variety or species (?) from Fort Tejon.

12402. Female. Fort Tejon 400

70. Fig. 1. Melospixt heermanni, Baird. Heermann's Finch. 10272. Male. Fort Tejon 478

Fig. 2. Mdospiza gouldii, Baikd. Gould's Sparrow. 8053. California. Type 479

71. Fig. 1. Ammadromus samuelis, Baird. Samuel's Finch. 7098. Male. Petaluma, Cal., August, 1856. Type. 455

Fig. 2. Euphoria ekgantusima, Gray.— Blue-headed Tanager. Male. 560. Bio Grande valley 304

Fig. 3. Euphonia elegantissima, Gray.— Female. From specimen in Museum Phila. Academy from Mexico.

72. Fig. 1. Juneocaniceps, Baied.— Gray-headed Snow Bird. —11159. Female. Fort Bridger. April, 1858 .. 408 Fig. 2. Carpodacus califontkus, Bated.— Western purple Finch.— Male. 10230. Fig. 3. Female. 10231.

Fort Tejon 413

73. PipUa megalonyz, Baied.— Spurred Towhee.— 10287, Male. Fort Tejon 515

74. Fig. 1. Lcucosticte arctous, Bonai-. Arctic Finch. Specimen from Kamschatka in museum Philadelphia

Academy _ 430

Fig. 2. Pleclrophanes mdanomtis, Bairv. Black-shouldered Longspur. Specimen in Philadelphia Academy

from Nebraska 43(5

75. Fig. 1. Oollyrk degans, Baird. White-winged Shrike.— (From specimen in museum of the Philadelphia

Academy, brought from California by Wm. Gambel ; its precise locality unknown) 328

Fig. 2. Collyrio ezcubiloroiJes, Baird. White-rumped Shrike. No. 8720. Fort Yuma 327

76. Fig. 1. Empidonax hammondii, Baird. Hammond's Flycatcher. Fort Tejon -- 190

Fig. 2. Empidonax difficilis, Baird. Western Flycatcher. California 198

77. Fig. 1. Seiophaga miniata, Sw.— Bed-bellied Flycatcher. Specimen from Xalapa, in Phila. Academy 299

Fig. 2. Seiophaga picta, Sw— Painted Flycatcher.— 4014. Male. New Leon, Mex 298

78. Fig. 1. Vireo cassinii, Baird. Cassin's Vireo. Type from Fort Tejon 340

Fig. 2. Vireo huttoni, Cassin. Hutton's Vireo. Type from Monterey - 339

Fig. 3. Vino philaddphiats, Cassin. Philadelphia Vireo -- 335

interruption along the shaft. On the scapulars, axillars, and other elongated feathers there are several white bars. The facial disk is grayish, obscurely barred with brown ; the posterior margin of the ear is uniform liver brown, then becoming banded with white. The longest quills and tail feathers show about 7 to 9 clouded transverse light bars, one of these at the end of the feather ; the bars on the inner and outer margins are quite white, especially towards the base of the feather, elsewhere they are mottled yellowish brown or brownish yellow ; the legs are dirty yellowish, with obscure and rather trans- verse mottlings of brown. The bill is greenish j7ellow ; the iris gamboge; the claws horn color; the toes are thickly feathered to within two scutella} of the base of the claws. The fourth quill is longest, the fifth and then the third a little shorter, the second between the sixth and seventh ; the first rather shorter than the eighth. Length of male 18 inches ; extent 40 ; -wing 13 ; tail ; tarsus about 2.

This species, with a general resemblance to the Syrnium nehulosum, is of rather smaller size, and readily distinguished by the entire absence of any of the longitudinal brown stripes so conspicuous on the belly, flanks, and lower tail coverts of the latter species ; these regions being barred transversely with white and brown. The white bars on the feathers are much less continuous and regular, and on the neck and head are restricted to rounded spots instead of forming regular zones. The under wing coverts are banded transversely instead of being uniform yellowish white The bill is less pure yellow.

A single specimen (original number 1858) was collected at Fort Tejon, March 6, 1858.

EXPLANATION OF PLATES.

XI

rjK.>.

Platj; 79. Fig. 1. Ilelminthoplwga virginiae, Baied. Virginia's Warbler. 10719. Cantonment Burgwyn, N. M. Dr.

Anderson. Type specimen e

Fig. 2. Oporornis agilis, Baied.— Connecticut Warbler.— 2309. Male. Carlisle, Pa. May 20, 1845. (The

first quill should be longest) - 24G

Fig. 3. Geothlypis Philadelphia, Bmxd. Mourning Warbler.— Head and breast— G89. Male. Carlisle, Pa.. 213

Fig. 4. Geothlypis macgillivroyi, Baied. Macgillivray's Warbler. Head and breast .. 214

80. Fig. 1. Seiurus noveboracensis, Nutt. Water Thrush.— 1502. Male. Carlisle., Pa 2G1

Fig. 2. Seiurus ludovicianus, Bonai\— Large-billed Water Thrush.— 964. Male. Carlisle, Pa 202

81. Fig. 1. Tardus ustulatus, Nuttaix. Oregon Thrush.— Lower figure. 2040. Columbia river. (Mr. Nuttall's

type - -- 215

Fig. 2. Turdus aliciae, Baied.— Gray-cheeked Thrush.— Upper figure. 10084. West Northfield, Illinois.

Type... 217

82. Ilirporhynchuscrissalis, Heney. Red-vented Thrush. 8127. Fort Thorn. Museum of Phila. Acad.

Type. . 351

83. Fig. 1. Thryothorm berlandieri, Coucn. Berlandier's Wren. 7123. Male. New Leon. Type 3C2

Fig. 2. Certhia mexicana, Glogue Mexican Creeper. 8176. Mexico 373

Fig. 3. Certhiola flaveiola., Suno.— Yellow-rumped Creeper.— 103C7. Indian Key, Fla. Jan. 31, 1S58. (The

yellow of the rump is not exhibited) 924

84. Fig. 1. Orotopliaga rugiroslris, Sw. Black Tarrot.— 8639. Male. Tortugas. June, 1857 71

Fig. 2. Crotophaga ani, Linn. Aid. Head. From specimen shot near Philadelphia; in the museum of the

Phila. Academy _ 72

85. Fig. 1. Picoides dor$(dis, Baied.— Striped Three-toed Woodpecker. Specimen from Pike's Peak, in Phila.

Academy „- .- - 100

Fig. 2. Picus gairdneri, Aire. Gairdner's Woodpecker. Male. 6101. Shoalwater Bay, W. T 91

Fig. 3. Picus gairdneri, Female. Figure of the head. 3905. California

86. Ardea wurdemanni, Baied. Wiedemann's Heron. South Florida 061

87. Ibis guarauna, Shaw. Bronzed Ibis. New Mexico. In Museum of Philadelphia Academy f

88. Iletcroicelus brevipes, Baied. Wandering Tatler. From Sandwich Islands. Specimens in Museum

of Phila. Academy 734

89. Fig. 1. Tringa cooperi, Baied. Cooper's Sandpiper. 5989. Long Island. May 24, 1833 _ 716

Fig. 2. Crei pratentis, Beciist. Corn-Crake. From specimen in Phila. Academy. Shot at Salem, N. J. . 751

90. Aegialitis nivosa, Cassin. Western Plover. Fig. 1. Male. 12802. April 8, 1857. San Francisco.

' Fig. 2 : Female. 13724. October 24, 1857. 095

91. Fig. 1. Nettion crecca, Kaup. English Teal. From a European specimen in Museum of Phila. Academy. 778 Fig. 2. Mareea pentlape, Bonap. European Widgeon. Specimen from Long Island in Museum of Phila.

Academy 784

92. Fig. 1. Erisnialura dominica, Eyton. Black-masked Duck. Male. From specimen in collection of the

Boston Society of Natural History shot on Lake Champlain. Fig. 2. Female. From a South American specimen in Museum of Phila. Academy 811

Helminthophaga virginiae, Baied. Similar in general appearance to II. rvficapilla. Top and sides of head, back, and wings light ashy plumbeous, with an almost imperceptible wash of olivaceous green; quills and tail feathers brown, edged with pure ashy plumbeous; the latter indistinctly and narrowly margined with whitish internally and at the end. Bump and upper and lower tail coverts bright yellow (with a greenish tint above) in vivid contrast to the rest of the body. Crown with a concealed patch of orange brown. Rest of under parts brownish white with indications of yellow along the median region, (perhaps entirely yellow when mature.) Inside of wings and axillars whitish. A white ring around the eye. Length 5 inches; extent 7J; wing 2£. No. 10719. Fort Burgwyn, N. M. Collected by Dr. W. W. Anderson, U. S. A.

y Ibis guarauna, Shaw. This species differs from Ibis ordii, in longer legs, and an entire absence of chestnut red, which is replaced by bronzed green. No specimens in the Smithsonian collection show any gloss on the head and neck.

XII

EXPLANATION OF PLATES.

Page.

Plate 93. Fig. 1. Chroicocephalus cucullatus, Bruch Hooded Gull.— 4320. Calcasieu, La. (The hood should

extend further on the throat.) _ 851

Fig. 2. Chroicocephalus franklinii, Bruch Franklin's Eosy Gull.— 4897. Kanesville, Mo. April 28,

1856 851

94. Sterna elegans, Gambel. Elegant Tern. From specimen shot in the harbor of San Francisco by

Mr. J. Hepburn 8G0

95. Sterna pikci, Lawr. Slender-billed Tern. From original in collection of Geo. N. Lawrence 863

96. Fig. 1. Uria columba, Cassin. Western Guillemot. North Pacific. Capt. Ilodgers 912

Fig. 2. Uria grylle, Latham. Black Guillemot.— Sea of Ochotsk. Capt. Bodgers' collection in Smithsonian

Museum 911

97. Uria carbo, Brandt. Crow Guillemot. From Kamschatka. Phila. Academy 913

98. Graculus mexicanus, Bonap. Mexican Cormorant. Phila. Academy 879

99. Fig. 1. Podiceps dominicus, Latham. White-winged Grebe From specimen in Museum of Phila. Academy

from Xalapa, Mex... 897

Fig. 2. T halassidroma melanin, Bon ap. Black Stormy Petrel. 13725. San Francisco 830

100. Podiceps Clarkii, Lawrence.— Clarke's Grebe. 9930. Female. Chihuahua 895

SYSTEMATIC LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Page

6. Falco nigriceps, Cassin Plato XI - 8

9. Hypotriorehis femoralis, Gray Plate I - - 11

18. Buteo swainsoni, Bonap. Plates XII, XIII 1!)

20. Buteo calurus, Cassin— Plate XIV - - 22

26. Buteo elegans, Cassin— Plate II, adult— Plate III, young 28

28. Buteo oxypterus, Cassin— Plate XV, fig. 2 30

«28. Buteo fuligiuosus, Scl. —Plate XV, fig. 1.

29. Buteo cooperi, Cassin Plate XVI 31

33. Asturina nitida, Bonap. Plate LXIV, adult and young - - 35

37. Rostrharaus sociabilis, D'Orb. —Plate LXV, figs. 1, 2, adult and young.. 38

50. Scops mccallii, Cassin— Plate XXXIX . . 50

°54. Syrnium occidentale, Xanlus Plate LXVI.

65. Trogon mexicanus, Swainson Plate XL 65

66. Crotophaga rugirostris, Sw. —Plate LXXXIV, fig. 1 71

67. Crotophaga ani, Linn. Tlate LXXXIV, fig. 2. 72

77. Picus gairdneri, And. —Plate LXXXV, figs. 2, 3, male and female 91

78. Picus nuttalli, Gambel— Plate XLI, fig. 2 93

79. Picus scalaris, Wagler Plate XLI, fig. 1 91

84. Picoides dorsalis, Baird— Plate LXXXV, fig. 1 100

86. Sphyropicus nuchalis, Baird— Plate XXXV, figs. 1, 2

88. Sphyropicus williamsonii, Baird- -Plate XXXIV, fig. 1 105

92. Centurus flaviventris, Sw. —Plate XLII 110

93. Centurus uropygialis, Baird— Plate XXXVI Ill

102. Trochilus alexandri, Bourc. &f Hals— Plate XLIV, fig. 3 133

104. Selasphorus platycerus, Gould— Plate XLIII, figs. 1,2 135

106. Atthis costae, Reichenb. —Plate XIX, male and female . 138

107. Panyptila melanoleuca, Baird— Plate XVIII, fig. 1 141

110. Chaetura vauxii, Dekay- Plate XVIII, fig. 2 145

115. Chordeiles henryi, Cassin— Plate XVII 153

116. Chordeiles texensis, Lawrence— Plate XLIV 154

118. Ceryle americana, Boie— Plate XLV 159

119. Momotus caeruliceps, Gould— Plate XLVI 161

120. Pachyrhamphus aglaiae, Lafresn. Plate XL VII, fig. 1, male. 164

121. Bathmidurus major, Cab. —Plate XLVII, fig. 2, female 166

127. Tyrannus vociferans, Sw. —Plate XLVIII 174

128. Tyrannus couchii, Baird— Plate XLIX, fig. 1 175

129. Tyrannus melancholicus, Vieill. Plate XLIX, fig. 2 176

131. Myiarchus mexicanus, Baird Plate V 179

133. Myiarchus lawrencii, Baird Plate XLVII, fig. 3 - 181

144a. Empidonax difficilis, Baird— Plate LXXVI, fig. 2 198

The figures to the left of the name refer to the systematic list of North American birds in the first volume.

XIV

SYSTEMATIC LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Tage.

145. Empidonax hanimondii, Baird Plate LXX VI, fig. 1 190

140. Empidonax obscums, Btird Plate XLIX, fig. 3 200

152. Turdus ustulatus, NuUaU— Plate LXXXI, fig. 1 215

154. Turdus aliciae, Beard Plate LXXXI, fig. 2 217

172. Geothlypis Philadelphia, Baird— Plate LXX1X, fig. 3 .... 243

173. Geothlypis macgillivrayi, Baird— Plate LXXIX, fig. 4 244

174. Oporornis agilis, Baird Plate LXXIX, fig. 2 24C

177. Icteria longicauda, Law.— Plate XXXIV, fig. 2 249

183a. Helminthophaga virginiae, Baird —Plate LXXIX, fig. 1.

187. Seiurus noveboracensis, Null. Plate LXXX, fig. 1— 201

188. Seiurus ludovicianus, Bonap. Flate LXXX, fig. 2 202

218. Setophaga picta, Sw. —Plate LXXVII , fig. 2 298

219. Setophaga miniata, Sw. —Plate LXXVIII, fig. 1 299

222. Pyranga hepatica, Sw. —Plate XXXI 302

224. Euphonia elegantissima, Gray— Plate LXXI, figs. 2,3 „. 304

238. Collyrio excubitoroides, Baird Plate LXXV, fig. 2 327

239. Collyrio elegans, Baird— Plate LXXV, fig. 1 328

244. Vireo philadelphicus, Cassin— Plate LXXVIII, fig. 3 335

249. Vireo huttoni, damn— Plate LXXVIII, fig. 2 339

251. Vireo cassinii, Santas Plate LXXVIII, fig. 1 340

257. Harporhynchus lecontii, Bonap. Plate L 350

258. Harporhynchus crissallis, Henry Plate LXXX1I 351

259. Haiporhynchus curvirostris, Ca. Plate LI 351

200. Harporhyncus longirostris, Cab. Plate LII 352

200. Thryothorus berlandieri, Couch— Plate LXXXIII, fig. 1 362

270. Certhia mexicana, Gloger Plate LXXXIII, fig. 2 373

277. Sitta carolinensis, Gmdin— Plate XXXIII, fig. 4. 374

278. Sitta aculeata, Cousin— Plate XXXIII, fig. 3 375

283. Polioptila plumbea, Baird— Plate XXXIII, fig. 1 382

288. Lophophanes wollweberi, Bonap. Plate LIU, fig. 1 386

297. Psaltriparus melauotus, Bonap. Plate LILT, fig. 3 396

299. Psaltriparus plumbeus, Baird— Plate XXXIII, fig. 2.. 398

300. Paroides flaviceps, Baird— Plate LIU, fig. 2.. 400

301. Certhiola flaveola, Sund Plate LXXXIII, fig. 3 924

306. Carpodacus californicus, Baird Plate LXX1I, figs. 2, 3, male aud female... 413

307. Carpodacus cassinii, Baird Plate XXVII, fig. 1, male 414

315. Chrysomitris mexicana, Bonap. Plate LIV, fig. 1 - •• 424

324. Leucosticte arctous, Bonap. Plate LXXIV, fig. 1 - 430

329. Plectrophanes melauomus, Baird Plate LXXIV, fig. 2 430

333. Passerculus sandwichensis, Baird— Plate XXVIII, tig. 2 444

335. Passerculus alaudinus, Bonap. Plate IV, fig. 1 - --- 440

343. Ammodromus samuelis, Baird Plate LXXI, fig. 1 455

345. Zonotrichia leucophrys, Sw.— Plate LXIX, fig. 2... - 458

340. Zonotrichia gambelii, Gambel Plate LXIX, fig. 1 460

351. Junco dorsalis, Henry— Plate XXVIII, fig. 1 167

353. Junco caniceps, Baird— Plate LXXII, fig. 1 468

362. Spizella atrigularis, Baird— Plate LV, fig. 1 - 476

364. Melospiza heermanni, Baird Plate LXX, fig. 1... - 478

365. Melospiza gouldii, Baird Plate LXX, fig. 2 - 479

307. Melospiza fallax, Baird— Plate XXVII, fig. 2 481

371. Peucaca cassinii, Baird Plate IV, fig. 2 485

373. Embernagra rufivirgata, Lawr. Plate LV, fig. 2 373

370. Passerclla schistacea, Baird— Plata LXIX, fig. 3 490

SYSTEMATIC LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. XV

Page.

383. Cyanospiza parellina, Baird— Plate LVI, fig. 1 502

385. Cyanospiza versicolor, Baird Plate LVI, fig. 2 503

388. Spermophila moreleti, Pucheran— Plate LIV, figs. 2, 3 506

394. Pipilo megalonyx, Baird— Plate LXXIII.. 515

395. Pipilo abertii, Baird— Plate XXX 517

397. Pipilo mesoleucus, Baird— Plate XXIX 518

411. Icterus parisorum, Bonap.— Plate LVII, fig. 1 544

412. Icterus wagleri, Sclater— Plate LVII, fig. 2 545

419. Quiscalus macroura, Sw. Plate LVIII - 553

422. Quiscalus baritus, Vieill Plate XXXII 556

423. Corvus carnivorus, Bartram Plate XXI 560

424. Corvus cacalotl, Wagl.— Plate XX 563

425. Corvus cryptoleucus, Couch— Plate XXII 565

426. Corvus americanus, Aud. Plate XXIII 566

427. Corvus floridanus, Baird— Plate LXVII, fig. 1 ' 568

428. Corvus caurinus, Baird— Plate XXIV 569

429. Corvus ossifragus, Wilson Plate LXVII, fig. 2 571

432. Pica hudsonica, Bonap.— Plate XXV 576

433. Pica nuttalli, Aud.— Plate XXVI 578

438. Cyanocitta woodhousii, Baird Plate LIX 585

440. Cyanocitta sordida, Baird— Plate LX, fig. 1 587

441. Cyanocitta ultramarina, Slrick. Plate LX, fig. 2 588

444. Psilorrhinus moris, Gray— Plate LXVIII, figs. 1,2 592

446. Columba flavirostris, Wagl.— Plate LXI 598

472. Ortyx texanus, Lawr. Plate LXII 472

480. ' Grus fraterculus, Cassin— Plate XXXVII 656

488. Ardea wurdemannii, Baird Plate LXXXVI . 661

500a. Ibis guarauna, Shaw— Plate LXXXVII

509. Aegialitis nivosus, Cassin— Plate XC, figs. 1, 2 695

516. Strepsilas melanocephala, Vig. Plate VII 702

527. Tringa cooperi, Baird— Plate LXXXIX, fig. 1 716

542. Heteroscelus brevipes, Baird— Plate LXXXVIII 734

546. Tryngites rufescens, Cab.— Plate VI 739

558. Crex pratensis, Bechst. Plate LXXXIX, fig. 2 751

574. Dendrocygna autumnalis, Eylon Plate LXIII, fig. 2 770

575. Dendrocygna fulva, Burm. Plate LXIII, fig. 1 770

580. Nettion crecca, Kaup.— Plate XCI, fig. 1 771

586. Marcca penelope, Bonap. Plate XCI, fig. 2 784

610. Erismatura dominica, Eyton Plate XCII, fig. 1 male, fig. 2 female 811

625. Graculus mexicanus, Bonap. Plate XCVIII 879

626. Graculus penicillatus, Bonap. Plate XI 880

643. Tkalassidroma melania, Bonap.— Plate XC1X, fig. 2 830

668. Chroicocepbalus franklinii, Bruch— Plate XCIII, fig. 3 851

669. Chroicocepbalus cucullatus, Bruch Plate XCIII, fig. 1 851

684. Sterna elegans, Gambel Plate XCIV 860

593. Sterna pikei, Lawrence— Plate XCV 863

704. Podiceps occidentalis, Lawrence Plate XXXVIII 894

705. Podiceps clarkii, Lawrence Plate C 895

707. Podiceps californicus, Ueermann Plate VIII, young 896

708a. Podiceps dominicus, Lath.— Plate XCIX, fig. 1 897

709. Podilymbus podiceps, Lawrence <